Causes of Your Knee Pain

Your joints are involved in almost every activity you do. Movements such as walking, bending and turning require the use of your hip and knee joints.
When the knee becomes diseased or injured, the resulting pain can severely limit your ability to move and work.

The knee is the largest joint in the body and is central to nearly every routine activity. The knee joint is formed by the ends of 3 bones:

  • The lower end of the thigh bone, or femur.
  • The upper end of the shin bone, or tibia.
  • The kneecap, or patella.

Thick, tough tissue bands called ligaments connect the bones and stabilize the joint.

Knee Comparisons

One common cause of knee pain is Osteoarthritis (OA). OA is sometimes called degenerative arthritis because it is a “wearing out” condition involving the breakdown of cartilage in the joints. When cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain and stiffness.

What is Partial Knee Replacement?

Partial Knee Replacement (PKR) is a surgical procedure that helps relieve arthritis in one or two of the three compartments of the knee.

With PKR, only the damaged area of the knee joint is replaced, which may help to minimize trauma to healthy bone and tissue.

1. Unicondylar Knee Replacement is a procedure that replaces only the single affected compartment of the knee, either the medial or lateral compartment.

Unicondylar Knee Replacement

2. Patellofemoral Knee Replacement is a procedure that replaces the worn patella (the kneecap) and the trochlea (the groove at the end of the thigh bone).

Patellofemoral Knee Replacement

3. Bicompartmental Knee Replacement is a procedure that replaces two compartments of the knee, the medial and patellofemoral compartments.

Bicompartmental Knee Replacement

 

Stryker has worked with surgeons to develop innovative products to be utilized in Partial Knee Replacement. Stryker’s robotic-arm assisted technology can be used for partial knee replacement, which is a procedure designed to relieve the pain caused by joint degeneration due to osteoarthritis (OA). By selectively targeting the part of your knee damaged by OA, your surgeon can replace the diseased part of your knee while helping to spare the healthy bone and ligaments surrounding it.

Picture A - Did you know Partial Knee Replacement

How Mako Robotic-Arm Assisted Surgery Works

1) Have a Plan Personalized for You

It all begins with a CT scan of your joint that is used to generate a 3D virtual model of your unique anatomy. This virtual model is loaded into the Mako system software and is used to create your personalized pre-operative plan.

CT Scan Partial Knee
CT SCAN

2) In The Operating Room

In the operating room, your surgeon will use Mako to assist in performing your surgery based on your personalized pre-operative plan. The Mako system also allows your surgeon to make adjustments to your plan during surgery as needed. When the surgeon prepares the bone for the implant, the Mako system guides the surgeon within the pre-defined area and helps prevent the surgeon from moving outside the planned boundaries. This helps provide more accurate placement and alignment of your implant.

Personalized Planning Partial Knee
Personalised Planning

3) After Surgery

After surgery, your surgeon, nurses and physical therapists will set goals with you to get you back on the move. They will closely monitor your conidtion and progress. Your surgeon may review an x-ray of your new partial knee with you.

Post-Operative X-ray for Partial Knee Replacement
Post-Operative X-Ray

What to Expect in the Weeks Prior to Surgery

Preparing for partial knee replacement surgery begins weeks before the actual surgery. The checklist below outlines some tasks that your surgeon may ask you to complete in the weeks prior to your surgery date.

❏ Exercise under your doctor’s supervision

❏ Have a general physical examination

❏ Have a dental examination

❏ Review medications

❏ Stop smoking

❏ Lose weight

❏ Arrange a pre-operative visit

❏ Get laboratory tests

❏ Complete forms

❏ Prepare meals

❏ Confer with a physical therapist

❏ Plan for post-surgery rehabilitative care

❏ Fast the night before

❏ Bathe surgical area with antiseptic solution

It’s Your Move.

Questions to Ask Your Doctor at Your Next Appointment

  1. What are the benefits and potential risks involved with partial knee replacement surgery?
  2. How long does it typically take to recover from surgery?
  3. Is osteoarthritis a factor in my knee pain?
  4. Will reducing activity, taking pain or prescription medication, getting injections, or adding physical therapy help ease my pain?
  5. Could partial knee replacement help provide me with relief from my knee pain?
  6. Am I a candidate for Mako robotic-arm assisted surgery?

dyk-knee-rep-img

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

Partial Knee Resurfacing

General Indications: Partial knee replacement is intended for use in individuals with joint disease resulting from degenerative and post-traumatic arthritis, and for moderate deformity of the knee.

Contraindications: Partial knee replacement surgery is not appropriate for patients with certain types of infections, any mental or neuromuscular disorder which would create an unacceptable risk of prosthesis instability, prosthesis fixation failure or complications in post operative care, compromised bone stock, skeletal immaturity, severe instability of the knee, or excessive body weight.

Common Side Effects of Knee Replacement Surgery: As with any surgery, knee replacement surgery has serious risks which include, but are not limited to, peripheral neuropathies (nerve damage), circulatory compromise (including deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the legs)), genitourinary disorders (including kidney failure), gastrointestinal disorders (including paralytic ileus (loss of intestinal movement)), vascular disorders (including thrombus (blood clots), blood loss, or changes in blood pressure or heart rhythm), bronchopulmonary disorders (including emboli, stroke or pneumonia), heart attack, and death.

Implant related risks which may lead to a revision of the implant include dislocation, loosening, fracture, nerve damage, wear of the implant, metal sensitivity, osteolysis (localized progressive bone loss), and reaction to particle debris. Partial knee implants may not provide the same feel or performance characteristics experienced with a normal healthy joint.

The information presented is for educational purposes only. Speak to your doctor to decide if joint replacement surgery is right for you. Individual results vary and not all patients will receive the same post operative activity level. The lifetime of a joint replacement is not infinite and varies with each individual. Your doctor will help counsel you about how to best maintain your activities in order to potentially prolong the lifetime of the device. Such strategies include not engaging in high impact activities, such as running, as well as maintaining a healthy weight. Ask your doctor if Robotic-Arm Assisted Surgery is right for you.

Individual results vary. Not all patients will have the same post operative recovery and activity level. See your orthopaedic surgeon to discuss your potential benefits and risks.

 

Mako™ Robotic-Arm Assisted Surgery for Total Knee Replacement – A Patient’s Guide
Common causes of knee pain

Your joints are involved in almost every activity you do. Movements such as walking, bending and turning require the use of your hip and knee joints. When the knee becomes diseased or injured, the resulting pain can severely limit your ability to move and work.

The knee is the largest joint in the body and is central to nearly every routine activity. The knee joint is formed by the ends of three bones:

  • The lower end of the thigh bone, or femur
  • The upper end of the shin bone, or tibia
  • The kneecap, or patella

Thick, tough tissue bands called ligaments connect the bones and stabilize the joint.

Picture B - A normal knee - 6 Nov 2019

A smooth, plastic like lining called cartilage covers the ends of the bones and prevents them from rubbing against each other, allowing for flexible and nearly frictionless movement. Cartilage also serves as a shock absorber, cushioning the bones from the forces between them. Finally a soft tissue called synovium lines the joint and produces a lubricating fluid that reduces friction and wear.

Each patient is unique, and can experience knee pain for different reasons. One common cause of knee pain is osteoarthritis (OA).

OA is sometimes called degenerative arthritis because it is a “wearing out” condition involving the breakdown of cartilage in the joints. When cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain and stiffness.

Another common cause of knee pain is rheu- matoid arthritis (RA). RA produces chemical changes in the lining of the joints, or synovi- um, that causes it to become thickened and inflamed. In turn, the synovial fluid destroys cartilage. The end result is cartilage loss, pain, and stiffness.

If you haven’t experienced adequate relief with conservative treatment options, like bracing, medication or joint fluid supplements, your doctor may recommend total knee replacement.

Picture C - An arthritic knee - 6 Nov 2019

Mako Total Knee replacement

Total knee replacement is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or damaged joint is replaced with an artificial joint called an implant. Made of metal alloys and high grade plastics (to better match the function of bone and cartilage, respectively), the implant is designed to move much like a healthy human joint.

Picture D - A replaced knee - 6 Nov 2019

Over the years, knee replacement techniques and instrumentation have undergone countless improvements. Mako Robotic-Arm Assisted Technology with Triathlon Total Knee implants is an example of how technology is transforming the way joint replacement surgeries are being performed.

When you hear ‘robotic-arm assisted technology,’ it’s important to understand that the Mako Robotic-Arm doesn’t actually perform the surgery. Surgery is performed by an orthopaedic surgeon, who uses the Mako System software to pre-plan your surgery.

Your orthopaedic surgeon will guide the Mako robotic-arm to remove diseased bone and cartilage. Then the surgeon will insert a Triathlon Total Knee implant.

Mako Technology was designed to help surgeons provide patients with a personalized surgical experience based on their specific diagnosis and anatomy.

Triathlon® Total Knee

With over a decade of clinical history, Triathlon single-radius knees are different than traditional knee replacements because they are designed to work with the body to promote natural-like circular motion. This is due to the single radius design of the knee implant. Single radius means that as your knee flexes, the radius is the same, similar to a circle, potentially requiring less effort from your quadriceps muscle.

Triathlon Total Knee

Since the thigh muscle (the quadriceps) is attached to your knee, it is unavoidably involved in the surgery. Therefore, the quadriceps muscle can become a source of discomfort or pain during your recovery period. The quadriceps muscle plays an important role in your ability to move your legs so it also has a major impact on your recovery and how quickly you can get back to living your life.

 

Did you know?

2 million Triathlon Total Knees

implanted worldwide since 2004

2 Million Tirathlon Total Knees

How Mako Technology works

1) Have a Plan Personalized for You

Before surgery, it all begins with a CT scan of your knee joint that is used to generate a 3D virtual model of your unique anatomy. This virtual model is loaded into the Mako system software and is used to create your personalized pre-operative plan.

CT Scan Total Knee
Personalized Pre-Operative Plan

2) In The Operating Room

In the operating room, your surgeon will use the Mako System to assist in performing your surgery based on your personalized pre-operative plan. When the surgeon prepares the bone for the implant, the surgeon guides the robotic-arm within the predefined area and the Mako System helps the surgeon stay within the planned boundaries that were defined when the personalized pre-operative plan was created. The Mako System also allows your surgeon to make adjustments to your plan during surgery as needed. In a laboratory study, Mako Technology demonstrated accurate placement of implants to a personalized surgical plan. This study also showed that Mako Total Knee replacement demonstrated soft tissue protection to the ligaments around the knee.

Bone Preparation Total Knee
Bone preparation

3) After Surgery

After surgery, your surgeon, nurses and physical therapists will set goals with you to get you back on the move. They will closely monitor your conidtion and progress. Your surgeon may review an x-ray of your new knee with you.

Post Operative Total Knee
Post-operative x-ray

Frequently asked questions
Picture E - Did you know Total Knee Replacement
Q: Is Mako covered by health insurance providers?

A: We understand that making sure your total knee replacement is covered by health insurance is important to you. Check with your health insurance provider to verify your specific coverage.

Q: How long has the Mako procedure been available?

A: The first Mako procedure was a partial knee replacement performed in June of 2006. Since that time, over 83,000 Mako hip and knee replacement procedures have been performed around the world.

Q: Does the Mako robotic-arm actually perform surgery?

A: No, the robotic-arm doesn’t perform surgery, nor can it make decisions on its own or move without the surgeon guiding it.

Q: How long do knee implants last?

A: Individual results vary and not all patients will have the same post operative recovery and activity level. The lifetime of a knee replacement is not infinite and varies with each individual.

Individual results vary. Not all patients will have the same post operative recovery and activity level. See your orthopaedic surgeon to discuss your potential benefits and risks.

Preparing for surgery

Preparing for total knee replacement surgery begins weeks before the actual surgery. The checklist below outlines some tasks that your surgeon may ask you to complete in the weeks prior to your surgery date.

❏ Exercise under your doctor’s supervision

❏ Have a general physical examination

❏ Have a dental examination

❏ Review medications

❏ Stop smoking

❏ Lose weight

❏ Arrange a pre-operative visit

❏ Get laboratory tests

❏ Complete forms

❏ Prepare meals

❏ Confer with a physical therapist

❏ Plan for post-surgery rehabilitative care

❏ Fast the night before

❏ Bathe surgical area with antiseptic solution

Picture F - Did you know Total Knee Replacement - 6 Nov 2019

Important information

Knee Replacements

General Indications: Total knee replacement is intended for use in individuals with joint disease resulting from degenerative, rheumatoid and post-traumatic arthritis, and for moderate deformity of the knee.

Contraindications: Knee replacement surgery is not appropriate for patients with certain types of infections, any mental or neuromuscular disorder
which would create an unacceptable risk of prosthesis instability, prosthesis fixation failure or complications in post operative care, compromised bone stock, skeletal immaturity, or severe instability of the knee.

Common Side Effects of Knee Replacement Surgery: As with any surgery, knee replacement surgery has serious risks which include, but are not limited to, peripheral neuropathies (nerve damage), circulatory compromise (including deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the legs)), genitourinary disorders (including kidney failure), gastrointestinal disorders (including paralytic ileus (loss of intestinal digestive movement)), vascular disorders (including thrombus (blood clots), blood loss, or changes in blood pressure or heart rhythm), bronchopulmonary disorders (including emboli, stroke or pneumonia), heart attack, and death.

Implant related risks which may lead to a revision include dislocation, loosening, fracture, nerve damage, heterotopic bone formation (abnormal bone growth in tissue), wear of the implant, metal sensitivity, soft tissue imbalance, osteolysis (localized progressive bone loss), and reaction to particle debris. Knee implants may not provide the same feel or performance characteristics experienced with a normal healthy joint.

The information presented is for educational purposes only. Speak to your doctor to decide if joint replacement surgery is right for you. Individual results vary and not all patients will receive the same post operative activity level. The lifetime of a joint replacement is not infinite and varies with each individual. Your doctor will help counsel you about how to best maintain your activities in order to potentially prolong the lifetime of the device. Such strategies include not engaging in high  impact activities, such as running, as well as maintaining a healthy weight. Ask your doctor if the Triathlon knee is right for you.

Mako™ Robotic-Arm Assisted Surgery for Total Hip Replacement – A Patient’s Guide
Causes of Your Hip Pain

Your joints are involved in almost every activity you do. Movements such as walking, bending and turning require the use of your hip and knee joints. When your hip becomes diseased or injured, the resulting pain can severely limit your ability to move and work.

One common cause of hip pain is Osteoarthritis (OA). OA is sometimes called degenerative arthritis because it is a “wearing out” condition involving the breakdown of cartilage and bones. With osteoarthritis, the cushioning  cartilage at the end of the femur may have worn down, making walking painful as bone rubs against bone.

Total Hip Image 1

What is Hip Replacement Surgery?

Total Hip

Total Hip Replacement (THR) surgery involves the removal of arthritic bone and damaged cartilage, and replacing them with hip implants that are designed to replicate the hip joint.

During surgery, the femur (head of the thigh bone) is replaced with a metal stem and the acetabulum (hip socket) is fitted with a metal cup. The artificial ball is placed on a metal stem, and the artificial socket is lined with polyethylene (a durable plastic).

Stryker has worked with surgeons to develop innovative products to be utilized in Total Hip Replacement. Mako robotic-arm technology can be used for Total Hip Replacement (THR), which is a procedure designed for patients who suffer from non-inflammatory or inflammatory degenerative joint disease of the hip. This technology provides your surgeon with a patient-specific 3D model to pre-plan your hip replacement. During surgery, your surgeon guides the Stryker robotic-arm based on your patient-specific plan. This helps the surgeon to focus on removal of diseased bone, helping preserve healthy bone, and assists your surgeon in positioning the total hip implant based on your anatomy.

Did You Know 4

How Mako Robotic-Arm Assisted Surgery Works

1) Have a Plan Personalized for You

It all begins with a CT scan of your joint that is used to generate a 3D virtual model of your unique anatomy. This virtual model is loaded into the Mako system software and is used to create your personalized pre-operative plan.

CT Scan
CT Scan

2) In The Operating Room

In the operating room, your surgeon will use Mako to assist in performing your surgery based on your personalized pre-operative plan. The Mako system also allows your surgeon to make adjustments to your plan during surgery as needed. When the surgeon prepares the bone for the implant, the Mako system guides the surgeon within the pre-defined area and helps prevent the surgeon from moving outside the planned boundaries. This helps provide more accurate placement and alignment of your implant.

Personalized Planning
Personalized Planning

3) After Surgery

After surgery, your surgeon, nurses and physical therapists will set goals with you to get you back on the move. They will closely monitor your conidtion and progress. Your surgeon may review an x-ray of your new hip replacement with you.

Post Operative X Ray
Post Operative X-Ray

What to Expect in the Weeks Prior to Surgery

Preparing for total hip replacement surgery begins weeks before the actual surgery. The checklist below outlines some tasks that your surgeon may ask you to complete in the weeks prior to your surgery date.

❏ Exercise under your doctor’s supervision

❏ Have a general physical examination

❏ Have a dental examination

❏ Review medications

❏ Stop smoking

❏ Lose weight

❏ Arrange a pre-operative visit

❏ Get laboratory tests

❏ Complete forms

❏ Prepare meals

❏ Confer with a physical therapist

❏ Plan for post-surgery rehabilitative care

❏ Fast the night before

❏ Bathe surgical area with antiseptic solution

It's Your Move

Questions to Ask Your Doctor at Your Next Appointment

  1. What are the benefits and potential risks involved with total hip replacement surgery?
  2. How long does it typically take to recover from surgery?
  3. Is osteoarthritis a factor in my hip pain?
  4. Will reducing activity, taking pain or prescription medication, or adding physical therapy help ease my pain?
  5. Could a total hip replacement help provide me with relief from my hip pain?
  6. Am I a candidate for Stryker’s robotic-arm assisted surgery?

its-your-move

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

Mako Hip Replacements

Hip joint replacement is intended for use in individuals with joint disease resulting from degenerative and rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis, fracture of the neck of the femur or functional deformity of the hip.

Joint replacement surgery is not appropriate for patients with certain types of infections, any mental or neuromuscular disorder which would create an unacceptable risk of prosthesis instability, prosthesis fixation failure or complications in post operative care, compromised bone stock, skeletal immaturity, severe instability of the joint, or excessive body weight.

Like any surgery, joint replacement surgery has serious risks which include, but are not limited to, pain, bone fracture, change in the treated leg length (hip), joint stiffness, hip joint fusion, amputation, peripheral neuropathies (nerve damage), circulatory compromise (including deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the legs)), genitourinary disorders (including kidney failure), gastrointestinal disorders (including paralytic ileus (loss of intestinal digestive movement)), vascular disorders (including thrombus (blood clots), blood loss, or changes in blood pressure or heart rhythm), bronchopulmonary disorders (including emboli, stroke or pneumonia), heart attack, and death.

Implant related risks which may lead to a revision of the implant include dislocation, loosening, fracture, nerve damage, heterotopic bone formation (abnormal bone growth in tissue), wear of the implant, metal sensitivity, soft tissue imbalance, osteolysis (localized progressive bone loss), audible sounds during motion, and reaction to particle debris.

The information presented is for educational purposes only. Speak to your doctor to decide if joint replacement surgery is appropriate for you. Individual results vary and not all patients will return to the same activity level. The lifetime of any joint replacement is limited and depends on several factors like patient weight and activity level. Your doctor will counsel you about strategies to potentially prolong the lifetime of the device, including avoiding high impact activities, such as running, as well as maintaining a healthy weight. It is important to closely follow your physician’s instructions regarding post-surgery activity, treatment and follow-up care. Ask your doctor if Robotic-Arm Assisted Surgery is right for you.

Individual results vary. Not all patients will have the same post operative recovery and activity level. See your orthopaedic surgeon to discuss your potential benefits and risks.